At topengineeringsolutions. Civil engineering has almost everything to do with our physical and natural environment. For any student to be a full pledged civil engineer, especially for masters and PhD students, they require to present a well-detailed and thoroughly researched thesis project for them to get good grades. Working on a civil engineering thesis project needs enough time to complete it in the given period.

It is very advisable for every student carrying out any thesis in civil engineering to start working on their thesis topics as early as possible so to as to get enough time to do the literature study on the topic, build a model in case one is needed and give a comprehensive description of all the results arrived at.

With the system developing day by day, assignments have become an integral part of the education system. Because writing a quality thesis paper is hard even for the advanced students, most students seek help with their civil engineering thesis projects from many different resources.

Students are given assignments on a variety of topics and new topics are used too when it comes to writing up civil engineering thesis projects. There is a very wide range of thesis topics for civil engineering. The possibilities and the diversity of the topics and civil engineering thesis projects to choose from, should be more than enough for any student to base the thesis in civil engineering on. The first most important thing to do before you start on your thesis is to select a good civil engineering thesis project or topic.

Interaction between Walking Humans and Structures in Vertical Direction: A Literature Review

Select a topic you are sure you are comfortable with and can easily tackle. After your selection, have your topic go through the usual approval by your professors. Below are some of the major civil engineering thesis title lists that may guide you on what to choose.

Hydraulic Engineering. Port and Coastal Engineering. Pavement Engineering. Water Services. Structural and Civil Engineering Informatics. Construction Engineering And Management. Water Treatment. These civil engineering thesis titles and topics are further divided into several sub topics. Below are the some of the most important sub topics for thesis in civil engineering you could choose from for your civil engineering thesis project. Mapping and classification hazard. Bridge hydraulics.

Flood routing in urban environments. Flood warning. Loew level causeways and debris. Sustainable urban drainage systems. Dam spillway hydraulics. River abstraction works.Prasad2 1 M. E, Nagpur, India Abstract— This paper focusing on soft storey Multi-storey steel structure buildings, These building are becoming increasingly common and economical in developed and developing countries with the increase in urbanization all over the world.

Many of these buildings do not have structural walls at ground floor level to increase the flexibility of the space for recreational use such as parking or for retail or commercial use.

Soft-storey is also called as flexible storey. But it showed poor performance during past earthquake. Soft story buildings are characterized by having a story which has a lot of open space such as parking garages, or large retail spaces or floors with a lot of windows.

This soft story creates a major weak point in an earthquake, since soft stories are classically associated with retail spaces and parking garages, they are often on the lower stories of a building, and the upper floors of most buildings are more rigid than their base floors.

As a result, the seismic behaviors of the base and the upper floors are significantly different from each other. This phenomenon is called as the soft-story irregularity. While the unobstructed space of the soft story might be aesthetically or commercially desirable, it also means that there are less opportunities to install shear walls, specialized walls which are designed to distribute lateral forces so that a building can cope with the swaying characteristic of an earthquake.

These floors can be especially dangerous in earthquakes, because they cannot cope with the lateral forces caused by the swaying of the building during a quake. As a result, the soft story may fail, causing what is known as a soft story collapse.

It has many qualities that make it the preferred material for architects. It is economical and provides great mechanical functionality; it permits the design of structures which are graceful, light and airy it streamlines construction site processes and offers rapid execution. A major advantage, however, is the infinite freedom for creation which it affords the architect.

The combinations of different products lend themselves to rich and varied types of construction. When combined with glass, steel makes fabulous use of light and space such buildings, the stiffness of the lateral load resisting systems at those stories is quite less than the stories above or below. Large spans constitute one of the major benefits of steel structures. Large spans facilitate future developments of the structural elements.

The load-bearing frame is integrated in the exterior walls of the building in order to free up space. Large spans were once confined to industrial buildings or ware houses ,but are now very common in office or residential buildings. It is advisable to adopt the principle of load-bearing columns, rather than bearing walls, B. Steel Structure Material Steel structure offers exceptional qualities in terms of mechanical resistance. Of the most commonly used materials in construction, structural steel.

These are classified, according to their composition. Determination of a soft storey for per floor up to 5th floor II. Also compare the soft story structural response of. As the infill walls are not regarded as a part of load carrying system, generally engineers do not consider their effects on the structural behaviour.

Therefore, In this study, effect of infill walls on structural behaviour, especially for the soft story, is investigated in order to increase the level of knowledge and awareness. A comparative study was performed on 3-D analysis model created in ETABS [15], a commercial computer program for the analysis of structures. Earthquake Effect on Soft-Storey for steel structure Building Symmetrical constructions in both plan and height show better resistant an earthquake than those that do not have this symmetry.Donthireddy Raja Shekar Reddy1 M.

Abstract: A shear wall is a wall that used to resist the shear, produce due to lateral forces. Shear walls are added to that Building interior to provide more strength, stiffness to building when the exterior walls cannot provide sufficient strength and stiffness. It is necessary to find out that effective shape of shear wall. These present work deals with a study on improvement of shape of shear walls in symmetrical high rise building.

In symmetrical buildings, center of gravity and center of rigidity coincide, so that shear walls are placed symmetrically. In these work a high rise building with different shapes of shear walls is considered for analysis.

The analysis of these building is done by using dynamic method Response spectrum analysis. The useful of shear walls in the structural planning of multistory buildings has long been recognized. When walls are situated in the advantageous positions in a building, they can be the very efficient in resisting lateral loads originating from wind or earthquakes etc. Reinforced concrete framed buildings are adequate for the resisting both vertical and horizontal loads acting on them of buildings.

Extensive research has been done in the design and analysis of shear wall in high-rise buildings. However, significance of shear wall in high-rise irregular or unsymmetrical structures is not much discussed in literature. Adequate stiffness is to ensured in high rise buildings for resistance to lateral loads induced by wind or seismic events. Reinforced concrete shear walls are designed for buildings located in the seismic areas, because of their high bearing capacity, high ductility and rigidity etc.

In high rise buildings, beam and column dimensions work out large and heavy reinforcement at the beam-column joins are quite heavy, so that, there is lot of clogging at these joints, it is difficult to place and vibrate concrete at these places which does not contribute to the safety of the buildings.

These practical difficulties call for the introduction of shear walls in High rise buildings.

literature review on etabs

Buildings engineered with structural walls are almost always stiffer and then framed structures, reducing the possibility of the excessive deformation and hence damage. RC multi storied buildings are adequate for the resisting both the vertical and horizontal load.

When such buildings are designed with and without shear walls, beams and column sizes of quite heavy. Shear walls may become imperative from point of view economical and control large deflection. Lateral forces, that is, the forces applied horizontally to the structure derived from winds or earthquakes cause shear and overturning moments in the walls. The shear forces tend to tears the wall just as if you had a piece of paper attached to the frame and changed into frames shape from a rectangle to parallelogram.

The changing of shape from a rectangle to parallelogram is referred to be racking. At the end of shear walls, there is the tendency for that wall to be pushed down at the end away from the force.

This action may provide resistance to overturning moments. Lateral loads can also develop high stresses, produce sway movement and cause vibration. Therefore, it is very important to have sufficient strength for the structure against the vertical loads. Earthquake and wind forces are the only major lateral forces that affect to the buildings. The function of lateral load resisting systems is structure form is to absorb the energy induced by these lateral forces by moving or deforming without collapse.

The determination of structural form of a tall building, high rise building would be perfectly involved only the arrangement of the major structural elements to the resist most efficiently the various combinations of the lateral loads and gravity load. The taller and more the slanders. Structure, the most important of the structural factors become and the more necessary it is to be choosing an appropriate structural form or the lateral loading system for the building.To browse Academia.

Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. Papers People. During past earthquakes column plastic hinges are more prominent than beam hinges which gives rise to global structural damage and high life threatening risk. All the structural components transfers their forces through column and column All the structural components transfers their forces through column and column than shares it with foundation to soil, so u can imagine if column fails whole structure can collapse this is strong beam weak column concept.

By making column more moment resistant than beams the plastic hinges shifts to beam and avoids the global damage in this case only beam will show flexure as a sign of beam damage and the people will have adequate time to evacuate the place and beam failure will only limit to a particular storey. This concept is strong column weak beam. In this paper three RC frame of 5, 8 and 12 storey height are investigated for strong column weak beam concept for zone 5 and medium soil and moment capacities are checked as per IS For checking the performance of plastic hinges of column and beam non linear static analysis pushover analysis is done in ETABS these hinges are checked and verified according to acceptance criteria given in FEMA Base shear and performance point with displacement is checked for all frames.

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literature review on etabs

In this paper, an optimization procedure is applied for 3D Reinforced concrete building structure with shear wall. In the optimization problem, cross sections of beams, columns and shear wall dimensions are considered as design variables In the optimization problem, cross sections of beams, columns and shear wall dimensions are considered as design variables and the optimal cross sections can be derived to minimize the total cost of the structure.

As for final design application, the most suitable sections are selected to satisfy ACI code provision based on static linear analysis. The validity of the method is examined through numerical example of 15 storied 3D RC building with shear wall. This optimization method is expected to assist in providing a useful reference in design early stage, and to be an effective and powerful tool for structural design of RC shear wall structures.

This study investigates and develops the structural optimization method. The effect of size constraints on practical solution of reinforced concrete RC building structure with shear wall is proposed. Cross-sections of beam and column, Cross-sections of beam and column, and thickness of shear wall are considered as design variables. The objective function to be minimized is total cost of the structure by using a simple and efficient automated MATLAB platform structural optimization methodology.

With modification of mathematical formulations, the result is compared with optimal solution without size constraints. The most suitable combination of section sizes is selected as for the final design application based on linear static analysis.

The findings of this study show that defining higher value of upper bound of sectional sizes significantly affects optimal solution, and defining of size constraints play a vital role in finding of global and practical solution during optimization procedures. The result and effectiveness of proposed method confirm the ability and efficiency of optimal solutions for 3D RC shear wall-frame structure.

This paper presents the design application and reinforcement detailing of 15 storied reinforced concrete shear wall-frame structure based on linear static analysis. Databases are generated for section sizes based on automated structural The design constraints of allowable section sizes, capacity criteria and seismic provisions for static loads, combination of gravity and lateral loads are checked and determined based on ASCE documents and ACI design provision.

The result of this study illustrates the efficiency of proposed method, and is expected to provide a useful reference in designing of RC shear wall-frame structures.Abstract Diagrid structures are an exterior structures which is consisting of diagonal struts and ties in the periphery and an interior core. These diagonal members carry gravity load and lateral load by the axial action of member. Due to the structural efficiency of diagrids, interior and corner columns can be eliminated thereby providing flexibility in the floor plan.

Civil Engineering Thesis

The diagrid structures are emerging as popular structural system in many developed countries of the world, but in India it is yet to gain importance. This paper presents a review on the literature of diagrid structures.

Studies conducted on diagrid structures to determine the diagrid angle for most economical design. The objective of this paper is to study the performance of diagird structural system in high rise building subjected to lateral load. Study of the literature is reviewed in this paper on behavior of diagrid structure by compare with conventional structure for parameter like time period, top storey displacement, storey shear, storey drift and steel weight.

Tall building or high rise structures construction are more in this era; due to increase in population, economic prosperity and also due to the scarcity of lands high-rise structures are preferred. Height is main criteria in this kind of buildings, demand for tall buildings has increased because of increase in demand for business and residential space, advances in constructions, high strength structural elements, materials and also various software like ETABS, STAADPRO.

In 19 thcentury tall buildings were built in U. Generally tall buildings are constructed and used for commercial office buildings, apartments etc. Braced frames are structural elements those are mainly designed to resist earthquake loads and wind loads. Bracing system is highly efficient; they provide more strength and stiffness against horizontal shear because the diagonal member elements work in axial stress. For tall steel buildings braces are used as lateral resisting systems in that mainly there are four types :Single braces, Double braces, Triangular braces and Eccentric braces.

Usages of braces are not aesthetically good so those braces are usually provided in the interior of buildings. After braces tube structures, outrigger structures are introduced in s. Architectures always wanted some new look for each and in order to meet their requirements a new load resisting system is recently introduced that is diagrid system.

The diagrid structures are more efficient than conventional exterior braced systems this is only because almost all the vertical columns are eliminated, diagonal grid element alone itself carry all lateral and vertical loads, but conventional exterior braces carry only vertical loads. By using this system the high rise structures can be built to any shape like square, rectangle and curved structures etc. The diagrid structure of each storey height is designed with diagonals placed at various gradually changing angles along the building height in order to determine the optimal uniform angle for each structure.

Case Alt. Angle Description Optimal 's' Steel Mass tons 2 79, 76, 73, 69, 63 0. They concluded For the talldiagrid structures, with aspect ratios ranging from about 4 to9, the range of the optimal angle is from approximately 60 to70 degrees. Nishith B. Panchal present the comparison study of storey, storey, storey and storey of diagrid structural system with a diagrid angle Realistic simulation of the dynamic effects of walking pedestrians on structures is still a considerable challenge.

This is mainly due to the inter- and intrasubject variability of humans and their bodies and difficult-to-predict loading scenarios, including multipedestrian walking traffic and unknown human-structure interaction HSI mechanisms.

Over the past three decades, several attempts have been made to simulate walking HSI in the lateral direction. However, research into the mechanisms of this interaction in the vertical direction, despite its higher likelihood and critical importance, is fragmented and incoherent. It is, therefore, difficult to apply and codify. This paper critically reviews the efforts to date to simulate walking HSI in the vertical direction and highlights the key areas that need further investigation.

The vibration serviceability of many modern structures, such as footbridges, stadia, and long-span floors under human loading, increasingly governs their design and determines their cost.

Inadequate consideration of the effects of walking pedestrians on structural performance can lead to a considerable financial loss, such as in the case of the infamous London Millennium Bridge in [ 12 ]. It is particularly an issue today, with high aesthetic demands and new lightweight materials of increasing strength affecting the vibration serviceability performance. Regardless of its importance, recurring incidences of vibration serviceability failures due to walking pedestrians, in both the vertical and horizontal directions, have highlighted the inability of current design methods to reliably estimate the structural response [ 34 ].

This unreliable performance is primarily due to virtually all design methods ignoring the human-structure interaction HSI and sometimes dismissing the natural inter - and intrasubject variability of people [ 4 — 8 ]. The excessive lateral vibration of the Paris Solferino Bridge and the London Millennium Bridge on their opening days triggered a wave of research on HSI in the lateral direction after [ 9 ].

However, the interaction of walking people with structures in the vertical direction, despite being much more frequent and relevant to everyday design practice, has sparsely been explored. HSI was initially considered to be nonexistent for moving humans [ 10 ]. However, it was subsequently demonstrated that it could have significant effects on the structural response [ 11 ].

Recently, a more realistic estimation of the structural vibration response was made possible by taking into account the inter- and intrasubject variability of the pedestrians in the form of statistical models of their walking force [ 612 — 17 ]. This has considerably increased the fidelity of the walking force models, but they still struggle to capture key features of human-structure interaction HSI [ 48 ].

The main reason is the lack of credible experimental data to understand and model HSI. In the context of the vibration serviceability of structures, HSI is defined here as the continuous mutual dynamic effects of a human and structure on each other that acts in a feedback loop as long as the structure and human on it are in contact. HSI is dependent on the human body posture and the type of activity [ 18 ] and can affect structural response through different mechanisms and in different directions.

Based on the classification proposed by Sachse [ 19 ] and assuming the human body as a mass-spring-damper MSD system, HSI mechanisms can be divided into two categories.

literature review on etabs

The first category comprises the effects of the human body perceived as a dynamic system on the dynamic properties of the structure, namely, mass, stiffness, and damping. The second category comprises the effects of the structural vibrations on the forces induced by human occupants.

Instructions for writing the Literature Review of your Final year project

For walking people, this includes effects of the structural vibration on the gait parameters, such as the pacing frequency and phase, stride length, and walking speed. This paper focuses on the interaction of the walking people with structures in the vertical direction.It is hypothesized that lower quality of attachment to parents in adolescents is associated with higher level of eating disorders.

The following six literature reviews attempt to display and support this hypothesis. In a research article by Bachar, Canetti, Hochfdorf, Latzertwo questions were addressed to conduct the study. First, is the role of the family environment related to anorexic and bulimic Present and Future of Olympic Marketing.

Summary: This dissertation is dedicated to the analysis of Olympic marketing as the implicit side of Olympic movement; evaluation of past, present and future profiles of Olympic marketing. A unit may fall sick because of a major lubricant i. There are various mechanisms available to a firm for revival. Financial Restructuring is a favoured mechanism for firms in red. Does financial restructuring help in improving the financial It will synthesize and evaluate the data, and explain the importance of the topic to establish ways to cite statistics how social support This literature review will explore the academic readings, that help assist identity key issues relating to a criminology perspective of alcohol related problems.

Ergo, based on past research from the academic readings this literature review will explore prevention strategies that help reduce social harm to the individual and the community, and also the consequences that alcohol can lead to. Also, this literature reviewhas identified gaps within the academic Literature Review The purpose of this research project is for you to create a scholarly piece of graduate-level research and writing, which conforms to APA format. Competency in the APA format is required of all Business graduates of Liberty University, as set forth by policy of both the Graduate Faculty and the administration.

You will research and write a literature review on a topic relevant to our course. What is a Literature Review? The review is a careful examination of a body of literature pointing toward the answer to your research question.

A literature review is the effective evaluation of selected documents on a research topic.

CSI ETABS - 22 Shear Wall design in Simplest way - Example 1

A review may form an essential part of the research process or may constitute a research project in itself. In the context of a research paper or thesis the literature review is a critical synthesis of previous research In other words, it retrospectively undertakes a critical analysis of the pros and cons of existing important studies and research and shows which issues require new or further study — how the body of knowledge could be improved.

As such, it is a useful way of arguing for new research to be done - for example, as part of a proposal for Questions frequently asked about the literature review : What are the topics